Economic studies


Population 1.5 million
GDP per capita 26,136 US$
Country risk assessment
Business Climate
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major macro economic indicators

  2020 2021 2022 (e) 2023 (p)
GDP growth (%) -4.9 2.2 4.0 3.0
Inflation (yearly average, %) -2.3 -0.6 3.5 3.0
Budget balance (% GDP) -17.9 -11.1 -5.0 -6.0
Current account balance (% GDP) -9.3 6.7 8.5 5.0
Public debt (% GDP) 129.7 128.5 120.0 121.0

(e): Estimate (f): Forecast


  • One of the most diversified economies in the region with a higher share of services and manufacturing sectors in GDP
  • Presence of a strong aluminium sector, a key contributor to national output
  • Low level of inflation and interest rate environment encouraging business operating conditions


  • Very high external debt-to-GDP ratio (both public and private)
  • High budget deficit despite a progressive narrowing from 2021 onwards
  • Fiscal revenues still dependent on oil despite a relatively diversified economy

Risk assessment

A steady growth

The Bahraini economy should steadily grow   in 2022, after its sharp contraction in 2019 and its relatively solid recovery in 2021. Exports   (net exports should stand at around 10% of GDP in 2022) will be a key contributor, followed by private consumption   (40% of GDP). Indeed, as of early November 2021, the country had been able to fully vaccinate 65%   of its population of 1.7 million which, in turn, allowed the progressive lifting of the temporary bans against COVID-19 in the second half of 2021. The normalized mobility will strengthen household spending, but the latter will only grow gradually. As a result, the consumption-driven sectors, such as retail, would reach their pre-COVID level towards the end of 2022. Bahrain, one of the world’s largest aluminium producers, will benefit from strong global demand for metal products (around 20% of total exports) on the back of stimulus packages prioritising infrastructure investments and transition to a greener economy across the globe, as well as a resilient manufacturing activity. Investments are expected to stand at around 30% of GDP in 2022.  The tourism sector will remain important for the recovery of the Bahraini economy, as it normally accounts (including its indirect effects) for 10% of GDP. Nearly 60% of tourist arrivals to Bahrain are from the Middle East. In this sense, the removal of measures against COVID-19 will help tourism revenues to recover. The re-opening of the King Fahd causeway by Saudi Arabia, linking the Kingdom to Bahrain, the opening of the Bahrain International Exhibition and Convention Center due in 2022, as well as the country’s liberal social and political climate will be among the key factors to support tourism revenues, despite rising regional competition. Overall, net exports of goods and services should increase by 2.6% in 2022 after a rise of an estimated 9% in 2021.


Fiscal position remains weak with a high level of public debt

With hydrocarbon making up around 70% of total revenues, higher commodity prices will support fiscal revenue growth. The government seeks to boost revenue as it announced in September 2021 and would double the value-added tax to 10% in order to curb budget deficit. On the other hand, although the 2021-2022 budget included some reforms like reducing electricity and water subsidies, as well as operating expenses, higher energy prices may blunt the will to restrict spending.. Even though the budget deficit will slightly recede in 2022, after widening close to 20% during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, it will remain large in the upcoming period. As such, Bahrain will miss its target of achieving a balanced budget by 2022, as announced originally in its Fiscal Balance Program (launched in 2018). In October 2021, the government announced it would push back this target by two years to 2024. With the fiscal breakeven oil price estimated to stand at USD 106.6 per barrel in 2022 according to the IMF, the provision of public jobs for citizens and the subsidy system remaining largely in place, the fiscal position will remain weak. The public debt will remain large, keeping the borrowing needs high. Therefore, Bahrain neighbours’ willingness to provide funds is important. In 2018, Bahrain received a USD 10 billion aid package over five years from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates to help the country avoid a credit crunch. Despite the two-year delay in achieving the goal of a balanced budget, these three countries repeated their support for Bahrain, which will continue to encourage investors to lend funds to finance Bahrain’s debt on capital markets. The trade in goods and services surplus should continue rising thanks to higher commodities-related revenues and progressive return of tourists, without reaching its pre-COVID level yet . Demand for imported machinery meant for local infrastructure projects and higher transport costs will weigh. Foreign workers’ remittances and repatriated income by foreign portfolio investors will maintain the current account deficit.


No major tensions expected shortly, but long-standing political challenges persist

Bahrain’s has a functioning parliament and no major political tension is expected in the short-term. However, the feeling of the Shia population (around 60% of the population) to be marginalised in political   and economic terms may be a challenge in the upcoming period. 


Last updated: February 2022